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Infrastructure Development Code

DS-1.15 Movement and Access

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As road networks can not be easily moved, changed, or removed, they are a major influence on the success of the urban form. Movement networks impact on safety, community, and social contact, privacy, and areas of intensity that will support local shops or amenities.

DS-1.15.1   Connected Roads

A connected network of roads, lanes, and paths as opposed to a series or hierarchy of unconnected cul-de-sacs, increases accessibility for residents, allows for safer, more efficient movement of vehicular and non-vehicular traffic and enables more efficient infrastructure provision. A hierarchy of an interconnected road system allows an intuitive understanding of the area over the longer term, it also delays the need for substantial arterial route widening to manage poorly distributed peak traffic flows.

While subdivision applications are submitted on a site by site basis, there needs to be consideration of future connections to ensure the neighbourhood and future developments are integrated and accessible. This includes the provision of roads, footpaths, and cycleways, open space links and community facilities.

DS-1.15.1.2   Design Elements

The following shall be considered during the design process:

  1. Provision of a road layout (including cycleways and walkways) with as many links to adjacent sites and surrounding roads to create a choice of routes and transport modes. Collaborate with adjacent landowners.
  2. Design a road, cycle and pedestrian way which links bus stops, shops, schools, employment, parks and other amenities in the way people logically seek to move through a space.
  3. Connection of roads forming urban blocks, less than 150m in length and only two sites deep, are better than a large number of cul-de sacs and few through roads.
  4. Cul-de-sacs are only appropriate when they are short, or where the topography is too steep to allow a safe connection. Provide pedestrian/cycle links, at least 6.0m wide, from the cul-de-sac head to an adjacent road or park.
  5. Private right-of-ways should only be used to reach small pockets of land that are inaccessible from a road.

DS-1.15.2   Road, Block and Lot Design

The layout of urban blocks, their size and length is important in maintaining a walkable neighbourhood. Blocks that are too deep or long limit the number of connected routes within a neighbourhood and increase the distances residents need to travel to services and amenities. This lowers the feasibility of walking to places, and can add unnecessary vehicle kilometres travelled.

The orientation of roads and blocks should also ensure that lots receive adequate sunlight in a manner that will allow dwellings and other uses to provide a public ‘front’ to the road and a private ‘back’ for amenity.

Orientate lots to capitalise on views, take advantage of solar access and minimise the discomfort of prevailing winds. The layout of lots should provide for a mix of housing types through varying lot sizes and densities. Smaller lots at higher densities should be close to centres, public transport and facilities.

People wish to live in an environment where they feel safe and secure. Subdivisions should be carefully designed and managed so that the fear of crime and the actual incidence of crime are reduced. A conventional response has been the gated suburbs and solid high fences which can reduce safety through the isolation and screening of crime targets.

Passive surveillance of public spaces is one effective deterrent. Achieving this requires careful consideration of subdivision layout, and elements of residential environment such as lighting, fences, planting and the relationship of houses to the road and public spaces.

DS-1.15.2.1   Design Elements

The following shall be considered during the design process:

  1. Aligning roads north/south and lots east/west wherever possible to maximise sunlight to sites.
  2. Providing lots with sufficient area and dimensions to meet user needs. Ideally lots should be rectangular in shape.
  3. Arranging lots along the road fronts. Avoid developing rear lots within a block.
  4. Designing urban blocks for lots to have fronts facing fronts and backs facing backs.
  5. Locating lots to ensure sheltered microclimates can be delivered.
  6. Allow south facing lots north facing backyards for outdoor living.
  7. Make north facing residential lots wider to allow private outdoor living to the side of the dwelling, without conflicting with the need for passive surveillance of the street.
  8. Limit the size and length of urban blocks to increase the choice of routes, and allowing for increases in residential density close to town centres.
  9. Avoid rear lots as they generate public/private conflict along the sides of front and adjacent lots, and don’t provide connection to the road, community, or amenities.
  10. Ensure a variety of different sized lots.
  11. Incorporate the principles of Crime Prevention through Environmental Design (CPTED) in the development of subdivisions. Refer to DS-1.4.5.2.1 Figure 4: Lot Orientation.

Figure 4: Lot Orientation

figure 4 lot orientation

DS-1.15.3   Road Design

Carriageways, berms, cycleways, footpaths, car-parks, and sometimes stormwater infrastructure all need to share the road reserve. Road widths, cycleways, footpath styles and materials, berm location and width, in combination with tree planting can all be used creatively to deliver variety, interest and identity into neighbourhoods.

In residential areas well designed, connected local roads can provide slow traffic and safety for children playing near the road - whilst promoting accessibility. Road layouts last much longer than buildings yet in the past there has been little attention given to future redevelopment. Refer to DS-1.4.5.3 Figure 5: Road Design.

Figure 5 Road Design
figure 5 road design

DS-1.15.3.1   Design Elements

The following shall be considered during the design process:

  1. Creating an identity for the neighbourhood through the design of the roads.
  2. Designing attractive roads, incorporating appropriate carriageway widths, berms, and street planting, car parking, lighting and adequate footpaths.
  3. Determining the role of each route based on the wider movement network, local road, collector or arterial road and ensuring the design is appropriate for purpose.
  4. Encouraging appropriate driver behaviour. Traffic calming can be achieved by narrower carriageway widths, tighter corners, traffic islands, planting and changes to the street surface.
  5. Roads need to be wide enough to allow access for emergency services and service vehicles. Avoid situations where on-road parking blocks the movement of other vehicles, including 90-percentile trucks.
  6. Ensure adequate eye-to-eye visibility is maintained for road users and pedestrians at intersections and driveways.
  7. Design tight intersections to slow and control traffic. Intersections need to be designed for the safety of pedestrians, cyclists, and mobility scooters.
  8. Roundabouts can be unsafe for pedestrians and cyclists and should only be used after other intersection designs have been explored.
  9. Provision of dedicated cycle lanes on roads with higher traffic volumes.
  10. Footpaths should be provided on both sides of the road unless a clear case to the contrary exists.
  11. Provision of providing rear lanes or slip lanes for vehicle access and parking adjacent to heavy traffic routes, avoiding multiple driveways compromising the road’s function.
  12. Provision of bus-stops on public transport routes and ensure that these stops are overlooked by adjacent housing and other activities. Ensure that every lot is within 10 minutes walk of a bus stop and adjust the road network to provide direct routes.
  13. Avoid private ways, rights of ways, or common access ways as they do not provide the same amenity or privacy as roads.

DS-1.15.4   Traffic Calming

The efficient through movement of traffic needs to be reconciled with the need to provide safe, high-amenity settings for residential areas.

DS-1.15.4.1   Design Elements

The following shall be considered during the design process:

  1. Creation of safer streets. Mark different mode space with different materials. Use colour and material to make vehicular carriageway, footpaths and cycle ways, parking bays and manoeuvring areas clearly visible.
  2. Tighten intersection corners to ensure slower vehicle movements.
  3. Road islands and extended berms aid pedestrian crossing, slow vehicles and can be planted.
  4. Avoid long straight local residential roads by using the road reservation width for shifts in the carriageway to slow traffic.
  5. Incorporate chicanes or ‘chokers’ at key points to slow movement. Mountable kerbs can allow wider radii for large and emergency service vehicles.
  6. Incorporate planting in parking bays to help make the carriageway seem psychologically narrower to drivers.
  7. Use tables i.e. large, flat speed humps, to aid pedestrian crossing without relying on formal crossing points.
  8. Raise intersections in a different material to make more prominent and slow vehicles.
  9. Speed bumps (up to 1.0m wide) or humps (essentially a long speed bump up to 4.Om + wide) can manage vehicle speeds. However due to the nuisance they can create for adjacent users they should be considered as the least desirable form of intervention.

DS-1.15.5   On Road Car Parking

On road parking needs to be provided in a manner that maintains the amenity of the street.

DS-1.15.5.1   Design Elements

The following shall be considered during the design process:

  1. Parallel kerbside parking evenly distributed throughout the subdivision is good for visitor and resident parking.
  2. Parking can be concentrated alongside parks to promote public use arid to relieve parking in nearby residential roads.
  3. Use different parking bay materials to contrast with traffic lanes and make the streetscape more appealing (as well as reducing vehicle speeds).
  4. Driveways need to avoid parking bays.
  5. Be aware of facilities that may have parking congestion issues at particular times.
  6. Ensure street-trees have sufficient area to grow.

DS-1.15.6   Access to Community Services and Facilities

Residents require access to community facilities in order to meet their daily needs, and to participate in community activities. New subdivisions should provide clear direct links to existing community services and facilities such as shops, schools, libraries, and health facilities. Facilities within walking distance can encourage residents to walk and use the car less. This also allows non-drivers (children, the elderly, and those with disabilities) to independently access community facilities.
Opportunities for residents to work locally will minimise travel distances and avoid creating dormitory suburbs, as well as strengthen the economic and general vitality of town centres.

DS-1.15.6.1   Design Elements

The following shall be considered during the design process:

  1. Taking advantage of strategic locations adjacent to collector roads and intersections to develop local centres containing retail, services, employment, education, and community facilities.
  2. Look to stimulate the provision of new facilities if none exist in the local environment.

Definitions in this section

Design

Footpath

Infrastructure

Local roads

Lot

Private way

Road

Street

Stormwater

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